Pertumbuhan dan Distribusi Akar Tanaman Muda Beberapa Genotipe Unggul Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.)

IGM Arya Parwata, Bambang Budi Santoso, I Nyoman Soemeinaboedhy

Abstract


Perbedaan potensi genetik berpengaruh pada kedalaman perakaran, dan jarak pagar mengubah pola tumbuhnya dalam merespon kondisi lingkungan sehingga tanaman dapat tumbuh dan bertahan pada berbagai kondisi dan jenis tanah, maka pemilihan genotype atau varietas yang akan dikembangkan pada suatu kawasan tertentu perlu menjadi pertimbangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuai pertumbuhan perakaran tanaman muda beberapa genotipe unggul jarak pagar. Pembibitan secara langsung pada polibag berisi media tanah-kompos (1:1 v/v) di bawah naungan paranet selama 2 bulan, sebanyak 3 ulangan (masing-masing 25 bibit). Sejumlah 20 bibit berumur 2 bulan ditanam di lapangan berjarak tanam 1.5x2.0 m diatur secara grid systim. Pengamatan akar dilakukan dengan cara membongkar media tumbuh. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa selama periode 6 bulan, tidak ada perbedaan pertumbuhan akar antar genotype.Akar tunggang tumbuh geotropik dengan empat akar lateral yang tumbuh horizontal dan terkonsentrasi pada pangkal akar tunggang, sehingga membentuk sistim perakaran dangkal. Pertumbuhan (panjang dan diameter) akar tunggang tampak lebih mendominasi keempat akar lateral.

Kata Kunci: arsitektur akar, biomassa akar, distribusi akar, geotropic

 

ABSTRACT

Since there are differences in genetic potential effect on rooting depth, and also Jatropha curcas change the pattern of growth in response to environmental conditions so that the plants can grow and survive in various conditions and soil types, then the selection of genotypes or varieties to be developed in a particular area should be considered. This study aims to know the growth of young plant root of superior genotypes of Jatropha curcas. Seeding directly in polybags plastic containing medium mixtures of soil-compost (1: 1 v/v) under  shade net for 2 months, as many as 3 replicates (each 25 seeds). Some 20 seedlings of 2 months old were field planting with 1.5 m x 2.0 m spacing arranged in a grid system. Root growth observations were done by dig growing medium. The results showed that during the period of 6 months, there were no differences of root growth between genotype. Tap-root grows geotropic with four lateral roots that grow horizontally and concentrated at the base of the taproot, thus forming a shallow rooting system. Root growth, length and diameter, of tap-root appeared to be greater to four lateral roots.

Keywords: architectural roots, root biomass, root distribution, geotropic


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29303/jstl.v3i2.24

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DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.29303/jstl.v3i2.24.g14

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Jurnal Sains Teknologi dan Lingkungan (JSTL)

(ISSN Print: 2477-0329, ISSN Online: 2477-0310)

Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Universitas Mataram